Many of us are unaware of the impact that Lithium Ion Battery History has had on the development of Lithium Ion Batteries. First attempts to create re-chargeable lithium ion batteries followed in the 1980s, but these failed due to the inherent instability of the packs along with the ensuing safety concerns.
Properties of Lithium
Lithium has a several attractive capabilities for operation within a battery power supply. It's the lightest of all metals and has the greatest electrochemical potential and presents the largest energy density per kg. As a result, re-chargeable battery packs employing lithium metal anodes (negative electrodes) are capable of providing high voltage and great capacity, thus leading to significant high energy density.
Following leading analysis on re-chargeable li-ion battery packs throughout the 1980s, it was discovered that changes caused by cycling on the lithium electrode resulted in a potential fire danger. These alterations, that are a ordinary part of wear and tear, lower the heat stability of the cells, causing potential runaway heat conditions. When these conditions arise, the cell temperature rapidly nears the melting point of lithium, leading to a violent reaction known as "venting with flame". To demonstrate this situation a significant amount of rechargeable lithium batteries dispatched to Japan had to be recalled in 1991 when a battery in a mobile phone generated flaming gases and caused burns to the owners person.
This overheating and fire threat due to the underlying instability of lithium metal, especially throughout the re-charging procedure cause a move in scientific tests to a non-metallic lithium battery employing lithium ions. Although Li-Ions are slightly lower in energy density than lithium metal, the Lithium ion is intrinsically safe, provided certain precautions are in place when re-charging and discharging. As a result of these innovations Sony produced and sold the initial Li-ion battery for commercial consumption in 1991. Quickly after other Battery Producers developed and sold their own variations of the re-chargeable Li ion Battery Pack. Currently, the Lithium ion Battery pack is the quickest expanding and most exciting battery technology obtainable across a wide base of electronic equipment specifications.
The Li ion Battery Pack frequently releases twice the energy density of that of the common Nickel Cadmium Battery. Additional innovations and advances in electrode active resources have improved the energy density to almost 3 times that of the Nickel Cadmium Battery. As well as large capacity, the load features are substantial and the power discharge behaves similarly to the Ni-Cd with regards to discharge qualities.
The Li ion Battery Pack calls for lower upkeep. This is an edge over other battery technologies as there is no memory and no scheduled cycling is needed to prolong the battery's life. On top of that, the self-discharge is less than half compared to Nickel cadmium and NiMH, resulting in Li-Ion Battery Packs well suited for modern fuel gauge applications.
Strengths and Limitations of Lithium-Ion Batteries.
- a. Higher energy density, ability for still greater capacities.
- b. Relatively low self-discharge, self-discharge is less than half that of Nickel cadmium and NiMH.
- c. Minimal Upkeep, no occaisional discharge is needed; no memory.
- a. Needs protection circuit, protection circuit restricts voltage and current. Battery is safe if not provoked.
- b. Subject to aging, even if not in use, locating the battery in a cool area and at 40 percent state-of-charge minimises the aging effect.
- c. Medium discharge current.
- d. Subject to transportation laws, shipment of more substantial amounts of Li-ion batteries may also be subject to regulatory control. This restriction does not apply to personal carry-on batteries.
- e. Expensive to manufacture, about 40 percent higher in cost than Nickel cadmium. Better engineering techniques and replacement of scarce metals with lessened cost choices will most likely lower the price tag.
- f. Not fully developed, alterations in metal and chemical combinations have an effect on battery assessment outcomes, especially with some rapid assessment
PMBL, are a battery pack manufacturer, using cells by Varta, GP, Saft, Sanyo and many others. They have many years of experience as a battery pack manufacturer and can offer expert advice when designing lithium ion batteries to help ensure they fit the end application.
Talk to a Lithium Ion Battery Specialist